Acne is an inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles, characterised by the appearance of comedones, papules and pustules on the skin. The face, chest and spine – where the sebaceous glands are more abundant – are most often affected. Acne is particularly common among young people, with at least half of boys and girls aged 14-19 having less or more noticeable acne.
There are several causes of the disease – lipid overgrowth due to an excess of androgens or increased sensitivity of the sebaceous glands to androgens, blockage of the sebaceous gland duct due to its overcollection or a change in the composition of the fat, colonisation of the acid-fast anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnesin the skin.
Acne is diagnosed on the basis of the clinical picture. Further tests are needed to rule out diseases that cause endocrine disruption. Bacteriological tests may be necessary to provide effective treatment.
The treatment of acne depends on the severity of the disease – mild acne is treated with topical medications (gel, cream, skin solution), moderate and severe acne is treated systemically (oral medications). Photodynamic therapy with anti-inflammatory effects is also recommended. Daily skin care, including cleansing the skin with the right products, choosing the right cosmetics, etc., plays a role in the success of the treatment.